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The journey of pesantren and schools in Indonesia cannot be separated from the influence of ideology, politics, and culture. From this influence forms a typical educational institution with a variety of styles. However, the many features of educational institutions in Indonesia actually add to the treasury of education, each of which presents concepts and thoughts for the progress of the nation. This paper is a literature review that provides a critical analysis of article written by Martin van Bruinessen with the title Traditionalist and Islamist Pesantrens in Contemporary Indonesia in the book The Madrasa in Asia Political Activism and Transnational Linkages by Farish A. Noor, Yoginder Sikand, and Martin van Bruinessen (eds.). This book was published in Amsterdam by Amsterdam University Press, 2008. The purpose of this literature review is to find out the substance of the discussion and analyze how the author of the article understand the history, role and patterns of education in pesantren in shaping tafaqquh fiddin and ready to face the challenges of the times.
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